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Sesha

Impi yaseSandlwana

Isingeniso

Uma kukhulunywa ngempi yaseSandlwana kudingeka sazi ukuthi inhlosonqangi yabahlaseli kwakungukuqeda uMbuso woBukhosi bukaZulu owawusasele eNyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi, ngaphansi kweNgonyama uCetshwayo eyaqala ukubusa kusukela ngowe-1872 kuya kowe-1879.

Lempi yaseSandlwana kudingeka siphinde sazi ukuthi yayilandela eyaseNdondakusuka yangamhla zizi-2 kuZibandlela ngowe-1856, eyayihlelwe yiyo iNgilandi ngokuzama ukubeka uMntwana uMbuyazwe (Mbuyazi) ukuba abe yiNgonyama nxa iSilo uMpande sesikhotheme, lokho kubangelwa ngukungamethembi uMntwana uCetshwayo owayefuna izinto zihanjiswe njengesikhathi kusabusa iNgonyama uShaka.

Ukunquma kweNgilandi ukwesekela uMbuyazwe kwakuwukuzimbandakanya kwamaNgisi ukubhuqa uMbuso kaZulu eNdondakusuka. Lokhu kuyavela nasezibongweni zayo iNgonyama uCetshwayo nxa kuthiwa: “uHlamvana bhul’ umlilo eNdulinde, ubaswe ngabamhlophe abelungu ubaswe nguMantshonga”.

Okwenzeka kwiNgonyama uCetshwayo yilokho okwenzeka kuyise uMpande, ukubusa kuphela ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu esuka eningizimu yeMaputo, kwaMabhudu, eseNyakatho yemifula uThukela noMzinyathi kusukela ngonyaka we-1840 kuya kowe-1879. Ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eseningizimu yoThukela eyayize iyovinjwa nguMfula uMzimvubu kusabusa iziNgonyama oShaka noDingane yaqolwa ngamaBhunu ayengaphansi kuka-Andries Pretorius ngokwenza umfelandawonye noMntwana uMpande owaqembuka eNgonyameni uDingane ngonyaka we-1839, ngemuva kancane nje kwempi yaseNcome yangamhla zili-16 kuZibandlela kowe-1838. UMntwana uMpande wanxenxwa yibo abelungu, hhayi ukuthi wahlaselwa yimpi kaZulu, lokho akusilo iqiniso, kuyimbudane, kuyimfundisoze nokungahlaziyisisi umlando wethu.

Impi yaseNdondakusuka

INgilandi yayazi ukuthi idinga izinhloli, yazi ukuthi “ngeke uyinqobe impi ungazange usebenzise abantu obahlaselayo bendawo abazi nabazokuchushisa kuzo zonke izindawo eziyingozi ngenkathi uhlasela”. Ngakho-ke amaNgisi athola izinhloli ezazingamaZulu ezazazi yonke imihosha, amawa, imigede namahlathi endawo. U-Sun Tzu uthi: “those who reach and occupy the battleground early will have time to rest and wait for the enemy”, okuhumusheka ngokuthi “abafika kuqala lapho kuzolwelwa khona baba nethuba lokuphumula belinde isitha ukuze badumelane naso benomfutho”. Lokhu kwenzeka empini yaseNcome, kwenzek eNdondakusuka futhi nakhona eSandlwana kwenzeka lapho impi kaZulu yafika khona ntambama mhla zingama-21 kuMasingana 1879, kube kuzoliwa ngakusasa ekuseni.

Impi yaseMaqonqo

Empini yaseMaqonqo ngoMasingana we-1840 amaBhunu aqhuba impi yoMntwana uMpande phambi kweyawo, wona eza ngemuva ehlome ngezibhamu kodwa agcina engazisebenzisanga. Impi yonke nxa idumelana kwaba sengathi amaZulu aqedana wodwa kanti ongqondongqondo bamaBhunu bebevele behlose khona lokho, bagcina beqole yonke ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi bayiqamba kabusha bathi iyiRepublic of Natalia, okuligama elasungulwa ngabelungu ngesu lokucisha elakwaZulu bekhumbula ukudlula ogwini komPutukezi uVasco da Gama mhla zingama-25 kuZibandlela we-1497.

Ukugqabuka kwegoda

Impi yaseMaqonqo yaliwa ngoNozishada kaMaqhoboza Nzuza woDlambedlu owagqama kakhulu kweyeNgonyama uDingane kuvikelwa uMbuso kaZulu, kanye noNongalaza Mnyandu owayehola eyoMntwana uMpande isekelwe ngabahlaseli bamaBhunu abadla umhlanganiso behlome ngezibhamu. UMntwana uMpande waklonyeliswa ngengxenye esenyakatho yoThukela ngamaBhunu ka-Andries Pretorius aphinde futhi athi ayamgcoba njengeNgonyama. Ngakho-ke kwagcina ngeziNgonyama oShaka noDingane ukubusa eMbusweni kaZulu obumbene ohlanganisa iningizimu nenyakatho yoThukela. Lokhu yiyona ngqikithi yokushiwo “ngokugqabuka kwegoda”, lokhu kusho ukuqembuka koMntwana uMpande okwakungokokuqala ngqa selokhu kwasukela eNkabazwe ngaphansi kweNgonyama uMnguni kaNtu.

IKoloni yamaNgisi aseNatali

Kwadlula iminyaka emibili, isikhathi kusukela kowe-1841 kuya kowe-1842, uMbuso wamaNgisi wabe usunqoba amaBhunu ayeqole ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eningizimu yoThukela. AmaNgisi namaBhunu babebanga indawo kaZulu nokubusa phezu kwakhe uZulu. AmaNgisi abe eseyibhabhadisa indawo ngokuthi iyiKoloni yamaNgisi aseNatali. Zonke izizwe zamaZulu ezazikade zibuswa yiziNgonyama oShaka noDingane eningizimu yoThukela, uSir Theophilus Shepstone, uSomtsewu, owayenguNobhala WeziNdaba ZaBantu, wancoma ukuthi zakhiswe imizi yazo emeveni, ezintabeni nasemigubaneni. Lezozizwe zasuswa ezindaweni zazo zakhiswa ezindaweni ezazingakulungele neze ukulinywa nemfuyo. Okwenzeka kuwo wonke amaZulu enqaba ukuya emeveni, kwaba ukudliwa yinhlamvu kwathiwa aduve ngokungemthetho lapho edebesela ukusuka ezindaweni zawo ezinothile. Odwaladwala bamapulazi avundile nalungele imfuyo ayengamamogeni ayizi-3 000 ipulazi lomlungu emunye, anikezwa amaNgisi namaBhunu kwathi enye ingxenye yomhlaba kaZulu eyaqolwa yona kwathiwa yindawo kaHulumeni.

ISibhalo

Zonke izizwe zaMakhosi eningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi zaphoqwa ukukhanda ojantshi bezitimela, ukutshala amahlathi, nokukhanda imigwaqo ngaphansi kohlelo lwempoqo olwalwaziwa ngokuthi yiSibhalo. Bonke ababebhalisa abantu ohlelweni IweSibhalo banikezwa ilungelo lokubiza ilobolo lezinkomo ezili-15 nxa amadodakazi abo egana.

Impi yaseSandlwana

Impi yaseSandlwana eyalwa mhla zingama-22 kuMasingana ngonyaka we-1879 inesithombe okudingeka sibe khona ezingqondweni zamaZulu nxa siyixoxa. Lempi evame ukubizwa ngokuthi ngeyaseSandlwana yaqala khona entabeni iSandlwana kodwa yaqhubeka ilwa nakwezinye izindawo. Babuye bayibize phecelezi bathi yiAnglo-Zulu War. Impi yalwa iziwombe ezine ezibalulekile: eSandlwana, eShiyane, kwaKhambula naseHlobane, eGingindlovu nasoNdini (mhla zizi-4 kuNtulikazi we-1879). Yaqopha umlando, hhayi nje kuphela eNingizimu Afrika kodwa emhlabeni jikelele kwazise iNgilandi ngenkathi ihlasela yasebenzisa amasotsha amazwe amaningi ayengamaKoloni ayezokwelekelela ukunqoba uMbuso kaZulu. Kwakunamasotsha avela eCanada, eNew Zealand, e-India. Kodwa ingxenye enkulu yamasotsha alekelela amaNgisi kwaba ngamabutho kaZulu ezizwe zamaZulu ezazakhe eKoloni yaseNatali eningizimu yoThukela. Lawomabutho ayephoqiwe kungekho ayengakwenza ukwenqaba ukuba alwe nabafowabo, phela ayesohlangathini lwamaNgisi ngenxa yokuthi ayefana nezigqila zawo amaNgisi aseningizimu yoThukela.

LamaZulu ezizwe zamakhosi aseningizimu yoThukela ayembandakanya amakholwa, amaZulu aseDriefontein ngaseMnambithi, e-Edendale, eNdaleni, eRookdale nesizwe sonke sabaTlokwa esasizinze kwaNobamba okwakungabeSuthu ababeholwa yiNkosi uHlubi, bona abanikezwa elaseNquthu njengomklomelo ngemuva kwempi leyo yaseSandlwana. Labo ababengabazukulu bakaMantantise owazala uSigonyela, bekade bezinze ngaseNtabazwe lapho basuswa khona, bazinziswa kwaNobamba ukuze kuhlaselwe ngabo. Onke lawo makhosi nezizwe zawo ayesolwa ngamaNgisi ngokuthi awethembekile eMbusweni wawo. Ngakho-ke uMbuso wamaNgisi weKoloni yaseNatali wabalanda ukuzogadla ngabo ngokubahlomisa ngezibhamu ukuze bakwazi ukuhlasela wonke amakhosi amaZulu ayethathwa ngokuthi ayizephulamthetho, njengesizwe sakwaHadebe nje esasiholwa yiNkosi uLangalibalele ngowe-1873.

Iseluleko samaBhunu kumaNgisi

Kuleyompi futhi yamaNgisi namaZulu eyaqala eSandlwana, iNgilandi yemukela ukuthi ithole usizo lwengxenye yamaBhunu uMengameli wawo okwakunguPaul Kruger. UKruger waqala ngokunikeza izeluleko zokuthi kusetshenziswe inqaba yezinqola njengoba wona amaBhunu enza mhla zili-16 kuZibandlela kowe-1838 eNcome mhla ehlasela impi kaZulu yeSilo uDingane. INgilandi yakuchitha ukusebenzisa inqaba yezinqola njengaseNcome ngephuzu lokuthi yona yayizosebenzisa izikhali ezaziyisimanje manje njenge-rapid firing needle guns okwakuyizibhamu ezazingafani neMartini Henrys eyayisetshenziswe ngamaBhunu eNcome. Iphuzu lesibili lokwenqaba iseluleko samaBhunu labangelwa ngubuningi bempi yawo amaNgisi ngoba yayimbandakanya amabutho kaZulu aseNyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi kanye namaZulu ayezibiza ngamakholwa. Ngakho-ke empeleni iNgonyama uCetshwayo wayebhekene noZulu kanye naBatlokwa. Leliphuzu osomlando babelungu bayaligodla ukuze kudideke umlando wethu maZulu. INgilandi yayazi ngezinhloli zayo ukuthi amanye amabutho eNgonyama uCetshwayo ayezosebenzisa izibhamu kodwa iningi lawo lona lalithembele ezihlangwini, amawisa nemikhonto.

Kungalesosizathu abaphathi bezempi yamaNgisi bathi bona bafuna indawo evulekile efana naleyo yaseSandlwana ukuze bezolalisa uyaca emabuthweni kaZulu nxa uZulu esedumelana yedwa wona amaNgisi ebukela. Kuyasicacela-ke ukuthi iNgilandi yayinamabutho angaphezulu kude le kunaweNgonyama uCetshwayo yona eyayethembele kuphela kumabutho amaZulu ambalwa futhi ayengambandakanyi ezinye izizwe ezihlanganisa ezaseManyiseni, kwaNyawo, kwaMtembe nakwaMngomezulu, okuyizizwe ezingazange zilwe eSandlwana ngoba impi yabahlaseli yaqhamuka njengesinyenyela kwazise kwakukade kunoMkhosi woKweshwama waminyaka yonke oqala ngasekupheleni kukaZibandlela uze uphethwe ngasekupheleni kukaMasingana. Phela ngonyaka we-1879 iNgilandi yase izocoboshisa okwase kuwukuphela koMbuso wabaMnyama eNingizimu Afrika owawuzimele gelekeqe ubuswa ngokuphelele ngabantu abamnyama kuyo yonke imikhakha yempilo. Ngakho-ke amabutho oMbuso kaZulu alwa njengabantu abase bephakathi kwembokodo nesisekelo ukuvikela izwe labo okwase kuwukuphela kwalo elalisasele.

Amalungiselelo okubhekana nabahlaseli

Ingakadumelani impi kaZulu nabahlaseli bamaNgisi uZulu wenza amalungiselelo amaningi ayevamile nxa kuphuma impi.

Ukuthola ulwazi ngabahlaseli bamaNgisi

Kusukela emandulo uMbuso kaZulu wawunezinhloli ezikhaliphe isimangaliso esingabala kuzo uNongila Mabaso. INgonyama uCetshwayo yase yazi konke ngabahlaseli ngenkathi iNgilandi iphaka amabutho ayo ngemikhakha emithathu: ingxenye eyayizogudla ulwandle iyodlula eGingindlovu ize iyofika oNdini, ingxenye yamasotsha yayizoba phakathi nendawo iyodlula eSandlwana kanye neyesithathu eyayizoqhamuka ngaseHlobane wonke amasotsha agcine ehlangane koMkhulu IweNgonyama uCetshwayo oNdini.

Isimemezelo sempi

Ngemuva kokuba iSilo uCetshwayo nesigungu saso base benaso sonke isiqiniseko sokuthi abahlaseli babeqonde oNdini bezohlasela izwe, isimemezelo senziwa yizinceku ezaziholwa nguBhejane kaNomageje Khoza, abazukulu bakhe nampaya esizweni sakwaKhoza eNseleni. Isimemezelo sasithi: “INgonyama ithi mayihlome!”

Ukuhlelwa kwezikhali

Athi amabutho esefikile oNdini ezolungiselela impi, iNgonyama yafisa ukwazi inani labantu ababenezibhamu. Kuthe lapho isibonile ukuthi isibalo sabanezibhamu sasisincane, yancoma ukuthi kukhishwe izinkomo ukuze uJohn Dunn ezothengela amabutho kaZulu izibhamu zokulwa. UJohn Dunn yena wayezithenga kumaPutukezi eMozambique izibhamu. Lokho akwenzekanga ngoba uJohn Dunn, phezu kokuba iSilo uCetshwayo sasikade simnikeze amanxiwa eMangethe kwaMathaba, eMoyeni kwaNzuza nakwaQhwayinduku eMazimeleni; kwathi nxa kuhlaselwa uZulu waqembukela kwabanye abelungu wabanika yonke imininingwane yoMbuso kaZulu ayeyazi.

Ukuqiniswa kwamabutho ngezintelezi

Kwenziwa umsebenzi wokuqinisa impi ngezintelezi. Lokho kwakumbandakanya ukubamba inkunzi emnyama ibulawe ngezandla, ukuqiniswa ngentelezi kwamabutho, ukuphothula emfuleni, ukushunqiselwa kanye nokuchelwa ngazo izintelezi.

Ukubikwa kwempi eMakhosini

Kwayiwa endaweni yaseMakhosini kwahlatshwa izinkomo eziqondene namathongo eziNgonyama ezasezilele khona eMakhosini ukuwazisa ngokuhlaselwa kwezwe lawo. Ebusuku amabutho ayehuba amahubo amadala azo zonke izingonyama zakwaZulu kusuke usinga.

Izinduna nezikhulu ezazibongela eMakhosini kwakungoMnyamana Buthelezi owayenguNdunankulu weSilo uCetshwayo, uMahlathini kaSojaba Nkwanyana, uNtshingwayo kaMahole Khoza owayengumdidiyeli wayo yonke impi eSandlwana, okunguye owayelusa izinkomo noMntwana uSenzangakhona mhla ehlangana noNandi emadlangaleni kanti sekuzozalwa iLembe, uMbopha kaWolizibi Hlabisa ozizukulwane zakhe naziya kwaHlabisa, uMfusi kaManyala Mdletshe, ukhokho weNkosi uBonga Mdletshe kwaHlabisa, uHhemulana kaMbhangazeli Sibiya owaphinde wahola eyakwaNdunu sekubusa uDinuzulu, uMvubu kaNgqengelele Buthelezi, uSekethwayo kaNhlaka Mdlalose ongukhokho kaDokotela uFrank Mdlalose, uNtuzwa kaNhlaka Mdlalose, uSitshaluza kaMamba Ntshangase owayengumfowabo kaMasiphula kaMamba owayenguNdunankulu kaMpande, uSihayo kaXhongo Ngobese, uMpandamana kaNdlela Ntuli, uPhalane kaMdinwa Mkhwanazi, uSigcwelegcwele kaMhlekehleke Ngema, uSomopho kaSikhala Mthembu kanye nabanye.

Ukususa usinga ngokuxoxa ngempi

Uma exoxa impi amabutho ayeklolodelana ngayezokwenza uma esebhekene nesitha isinyathela awabantwana. INgonyama uCetshwayo yaqala yathi makuxoxe uKhandampemvu neNgobamakhosi. Induna enkulu yeNgobamakhosi kwakunguSigcwelegcwele Mngadi okunguyena owaqala wagiya bamhasha ngezihasho zakhe bethi: “uJi! uJi!” efunga ukuthi iNgobamakhosi iyofika kuqala esitheni uKhandampemvu lungakafiki, okunduna yalo kwakunguMkhosana kaMvundlana kaMenziwa Biyela, naziya izizukulwane zakhe oBuka ngaphansi kweNkosi uChakide. Izinsizwa zoKhandampemvu zona zazifunga ngodadewabo ukuthi ziyofinyelela kuqala esitheni. Emaqhaweni nezingwazi ezindala kwakwenzeka zingakaphumeli obala ukuthi iNgonyama ikhiphe isandla izixhawule ngokuzethemba ukuthi ziyoncamela ukusala enkundleni kunokudedela isitha sithathe izwe IakwaZulu. Nxa kuxoxwa impi ngisho umuntu owonile kangakanani wayengabulawa ngoba lokho kwakungeke kuzwakale kahle emathongweni amakhosi ayelele eMakhosini. Ukuxoxa impi kwakungumthandazo nje ngokwakho.

Ukususa usinga ngamahubo empi

Amabutho ayehuba amahubo ayenza ngisho igwala lifise ukuthi ngabe isitha sesifikile. Uma amabutho eseshunqiselwe achelwa nangezintelezi ayengavunyelwa ukuphindela emakhaya. Ngaso leso sikhathi abafazi emakhaya babephendulela izidwaba, baphebeze emoyeni ngemishanyelo ngenkolelo yokuthi lokho kwakuzokwenza amabutho abuye engavelelwanga ngamashwa empini, okusho ukuthi babephebeza ukuzila.

Amabombo kubhekwe khona eSandlwana

Sekubikiwe emathongweni ezingonyama eMakhosini impi kaZulu yaphikelela eSandlwana iholwa nguNtshingwayo Khoza okwakunguyena owayezoyiphaka engumdidiyeli wayo omkhulu. Ngalowo muhla zingama-21 kuMasingana kowe-1879, impi iphikelele eSandlwana, kwakuhutshwa amahubo amaningi. Elinye lalithi: 

Oqalayo: ‘Wosuka sihambe! s’hambe! Unosuka s’ hambe! Sihambe![kuphindaphindwa]

Abavumayo: Hhe! Hhe! Kush’ uMngwempisi! Hhe! Hhe! Kush’ uMngwempisi!’ [kuphindaphindwa] 

Elinye ihubo layo iNgonyama uCetshwayo elaliqanjwe ngempi yaseNdondakusuka nalo lahutshwa kuyiwa eSandlwana, lalithi: 

Oqalayo: ‘Wo! Sinik’ abafo!’ [kuphindaphindwa]

Abavumayo: ‘Im’khonto, Wena weNdlov’enamandla’

Oqalayo: ‘Ngonyama sinik’ impi! Im’khonto, wena weNdlov’ enamandla’.

Elinye ihubo lempi lalihutshwa ngesikhathi seSilo uDingane, nalo lahutshwa kuphikelelwe eSandlwana. Lalithi: 

Oqalayo: ‘Woza langa lashona!’

Abavumayo: ‘Lashona!’

Oqalayo: ‘Woza langa lashona!’

Abavumayo: ‘Lashona kuleziya ntaba!’ [kuphindaphindwa].

Wonke amabutho ayeholwa yizinduna zawo namasekela azo. Izinhloli zazihamba ngaphambili okungaba ngamakhilomitha alinganiselwa kwali-18. Zaziqeqeshiwe futhi zihlome ziphelele zazi ukuthi nxa kuqhamuka isitha kwakudingeka ezinye zikhwele zidilike ngesikhathi ezinye ziyobikela impi enkulu emuva. Empini enkulu kwakukhona izindibi ezazithwalele amaqhawe iziphuku zawo nokunye. Izindibi zona zazima kude zibukele nxa impi isitholene phezulu kuthi nxa ezimthwalele esala enkundleni, zishiye yonke imithwalo yakhe lapho zazihleli khona. Nxa sekuphindelwa emakhaya kwakubonakala ngokufika kwazo zingasaphethe zimpahla ukuthi labo abezibathwalele basale empini, bese kwenziwa-ke amalungiselelo okulandwa kwabo. Amatshe amaningi abekwe phezu kwamathambo eSandlwana ngawabaTlokwa namaZulu ayephoqiwe ukuchema neNgilandi.

Mhla zingama-22 kuMasingana ngowe-1879

Ngakusasa mhla zingama-22 kuMasingana ngowe-1879, kwathi nxa amabutho esewabona amathende amasotsha amaNgisi aphikelela khona ekhuza: “uSuthu! uSuthu!” okuyisaga esasiqanjwe eNdondakusuka ngababesekela uMntwana uCetshwayo kodwa esase siyisaga soMbuso kaZulu wonkana lapho eseyiNgonyama. Amasotsha amaNgisi ayevive ngemuva kwabaTlokwa namabutho amaZulu aseningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi njengoba abelungu babekade benze kanjalo futhi empini yaseMaqonqo nakweyaseNdondakusuka ukuze uZulu abhekane kuqala nabanye abantu abamnyama baqedane bodwa. Nempela kwathi nxa impi yeNgonyama uCetshwayo ibona amambuka yawagwaza ngamaklwa agcwala iziganga, izindimbane zawo ezasala enkundleni zazimbandakanya uGabangaye Mchunu namambuka amaningi ayesuka eKoloni yaseNatali.

AmaNgisi ayengazange azihluphe ngisho ukubhala uhla lwamabutho alabobantu abamnyama emqulwini wamasotsha ayelwa lapho. Kwakuthi nxa insizwa igwaza ibulala isitha ikhumule izingubo zayo izibeke phezu kwesidumbu sesitha yona igqoke ezesitha. Lokhu kwenzeka nasezitheni zamasotsha abelungu ngoba kwabe kuyinkolelo kaZulu evimba ukuthi ogwaziwe angayilandeli.

Ukudumelana ngqo kukaZulu namasotsha amaNgisi eSandlwana

Athi angaqeda ngamambuka, amabutho kaZulu abe esephikelela emathendeni ayohlasela amasotsha amaNgisi. Lapho kwafinyelela khona kuqala uMbonambi ondukuzibomv’ igazi, induna yalo enkulu okwakunguNtuzwa Mdlalose kanye noMankulumana kaSomaphunga Ndwandwe owagcina enguNdunankulu weNgonyama uDinuzulu yena owayeyingxenye yeMbonambi. Amasotsha amaNgisi avulela ngemvula yezinhlamvu eziqondise kulo ibutho leMbonambi kodwa kwanhlanga zimuka nomoya kukhuzelwa kuthiwa ‘uyadela wen’ usulapho’ bebodwa abasho izibongo zeNgonyama uCetshwayo, laze lagcina lifikile qathatha emathendeni ibutho leMbonambi.

Ngemuva kwalokho kwaphakwa uKhandampemvu olwaluholwa yinduna yalo uMkhosana Biyela, owagijima njengohlanya ephakamise isihlangu sakhe eqonde kubahlaseli. Amasotsha amaNgisi amthela phansi ngenhlamvu wasala enkundleni. Omunye owangena kuKhandampemvu ngoba esejahe ukufika qathatha esitheni samaNgisi nguQethuka Magwaza owayeyinduna enkulu yohlangothi loThulwana olwalungaphansi kukaMnyamana. Wakhuzwa uQethuka ngoba kwakungakabi yithuba loThulwana kodwa waqhubeka wangena kuKhandampemvu ukuze abe lapho kwakushisa khona, kushunqa intuthu, futhi kusetshenziswa izibhamu zohlobo oluphambili. UQethuka wagwaza amasotsha amaNgsi amaningi yena wabuya engenamyocu. Indodakazi yakhe okaQethuka yagcina ibe yiNkosikazi yeSilo uCetshwayo yazala uMntwana uManzolwandle ngemuva kancane kokudliswa ushevu kweSilo uCetshwayo ngamaNgisi ziyisi-8 kuNhlolanja ngo-1884.

Ngemuva koKhandampemvu kwamemeza uSikhizane kaNomageje Buthelezi eqondise kuNgobamakhosi ethi:

“Nilalelani phansi? Nathini kuKhandampemvu mhla kuxoxwa impi? Nalo uKhandampemvu luphikelele emathendeni!”

 INgobamakhosi yabe isibonile ukuthi nxa isibhamu silungiselelwa ukudubula kudingeka ilale phansi iphinde ivuke iphikelele phambili nxa nje siqeda ukudubula kwazise kwabe kunotshani obude eSandlwana.

Ngaleyondlela amasotsha amaNgisi ayesemathendeni agcina egwazwe abulawa ucaca kwathathwa nezibhamu zawo. Ngenxa yokuthi lwalukhona uhla Iwamasotsha abelungu, ngemuva nje kwempi yaseSandlwana iNgilandi yakhela amasotsha ayo ayesale enkundleni izakhiwo eziningi zezikhumbuzo.

Alukho uhla lwabamnyama abasala enkundleni

UMbuso wamaNgisi awuzange uzihluphe ngisho ukugcina kahle uhla lwabamnyama ababesuka eKoloni yaseNatali ukuze kwaziwe kamhlophe ukuthi bangaki abasala enkundleni nanokuthi nje babengobani, yingoba phela uMbuso wamaNgisi wawungagqize qakala ngokuthi labobantu abamnyama bayasinda noma bayafa na. Kwathatha isikhathi eside kakhulu nokuthi amathambo amambuka ayesakazeke sonke isigange saseSandlwana ahlonishwe ngokubeka amatshe phezu kwawo, kwawona lawomatshe agcina ependwe nje ngopende omhlophe ngaphandle kokucacisela izizukulwane namhlanje esezidideka ngokucabanga nokuthatha okhokho bawo ngokuthi babengamabutho eNgonyama uCetshwayo kanti kakunjalo.

lngxenye yabaTlokwa engasalanga enkundleni eSandlwana yaklonyeliswa ngendawo kaSihayo Ngobese noSekethwayo Mdlalose eNquthu ababesaphila, abaze babulawa oNdini ngesu lokubhuqa amaqhawe ayesale eSandlwana neSilo uCetshwayo esasisandukubuya ekudingisweni eKapa, mhla zingama-21 kuNtulikazi ngowe-1883. Inhloso yokubabeka lapho abaTlokwa kwakungukuqapha ukuthi oSihayo noSekethwayo bangafaki kubantu umoya wokuketula amaNgisi enyakatho yoThukela noMzinyathi.

Izinkubela zempi yaseSandlwana

Ngasohlangothini lwempi lweNgonyama uCetshwayo, izihlobo zazilanda eSandlwana izinkubela zazo okwakubalwa phakathi kwazo uMagudulwana Mthembu waseMahlabathini woKhandampemvu. Wagwaza abelungu abathathu ekuKhandampemvu, isotsha lesithathu walijuqa naye esedubulekile emlenzeni, isidumbu sesotsha lelo sawela phezu kwakhe. Kwathi lapho zifika izihlobo zizobheka izinkubela nezidumbu zezihlobo zazo watholakala esaphila uMagudulwana zamthwala wasiwa ekhaya wanikezwa imihlatshelo waphila.

Impi yakwaKhambula neyaseHlobane

Ukuhlasela kwamaNgisi kwaKhambula naseHlobane kwaqondana nabaQulusi. Yonke indawo esuka eMahlabathini ize iyofinyelela eSimdlangentsha, iNgonyama uShaka yayikade iyinike uNgqengelele. Ngakho-ke indlalifa yakhe uMnyamana wayenemizi eNgoje naseMahlabathini. Kwakuyinjwayelo kwaZulu ukuthi impi nxa ilwela endaweni yesikhulu seNgonyama kube yiso esiphaka impi lapho kwazise amabutho amaningi ayeba ngaphansi kokuholwa yilesosikhulu. Ngakho-ke impi yakwaKhambula ngaseNqabeni kaHawana yaphakwa nguMnyamana kaNgqengelele. Ngaleso sikhathi amasotsha amaNgisi ayesevutha uphondo ngemuva kokwehlulwa kwawo eSandlwana. Ayesebulala abalimele eshisa imizi yabantu abafazi basale dengwane. Impi kaZulu yalwa ngokuzinikela okukhulu kwaKhambula naseHlobane kodwa izibhamu zadla umhlanganiso emahawini nasemikhontweni. Ngenyanga kaNdasa ngowe-1879, uMntwana uHhamu kaMpande waqembukela emaNgisini nengxenye kaZulu eyayingabalandeli bakhe. Lokhu kwacacisa ukuthi amaNgisi ayenomshoshaphansi wokunxenxela amaqhawe kaZulu ukuba azimbandakanye nawo.

Impi yaseGingindlovu

Impi eyayiqhamuka eGingindlovu neyagcina ilwele eMfuleni iNyezane yatholana phezulu nekaZulu eyayiholwa nguPhalane Mkhwanazi, uSomopho kaSikhala Mthembu, uMavumengwana Ntuli kanye noMajiya Nzuza. Yadumelana ngamawala eNyezane kwafa amasotsha amaNgisi amaningi. Kulapho futhi abaphathi bamasotsha amaNgisi bakhipha isinqumo sokuthi kudutshulwe kubulawe nabalimele okuyinto isivumelwano saseGeneva esiphambene nayo. Yehlulwa kanjalo ekaZulu.

Amasotsha amaNgisi agcina ekwazile ukuphikelela oNdini ukuze abambe iNgonyama uCetshwayo. Amabutho amaningi kaZulu azama ukuvimba amasotsha amaNgisi kodwa mhla zizi-4 kuNtulikazi ngowe-1879 agcina efinyelele oNdini afike alushisa ngomlilo. Ingonyama yayingasekho isibhaciswe eNgome emzini kaShoyisa Mbuyisa esizweni sakwaButhelezi. Nokho yagcina itholakele mhla zingama-31 kuNcwaba ngowe-1879 yaqhutshwa ngamabutho amaNgisi igqokiswe indwangu yetafula. Kwahanjwa kusukwa oNdini indlela yedlula lapho sekuyiNyuvesi yasoNgoye khona kwaDlangezwa, yedlula ngenhla kwedolobha laseSikhawini (manje esekuthiwa eSikhaleni) kwathi lapho kufikwa eSikhawini Beach, iNgonyama yathathwa ngomkhumbi wezempi yayiswa ekudingisweni eKapa.

Amambuka aklonyeliswa ngamaNgisi

Akhona-ke nokho amanye amambuka aklonyeliswa nguMbuso wamaNgisi anjengoNjengabantu Ngubane kaSobhuza Ngubane wasemaBomvini owasiza amasotsha amaNgisi amaningi wagcina enikezwe imendlela kanye nesikhundla sokuba nguSayitsheni eGreytown. Abanye abaklonyeliswa ngezimendlela ngokudubula abantu bakubo bahlanganisa amakholwa amaningi kanye futhi noStephen Mini [Edendale], u-Elijah Khambule kanye noSimeon Khambule.

Ngemuva kwesikhathi eside isiphelile impi yaseSandlwana kwaba nombango wesikhundla sobukhosi emaChunwini. Isikhundla kwakudingeka sithathwe nguZimema kodwa uMbuso weKoloni yamaNgisi wathi makube yindlalifa kaGabanganye ethatha isikhundla ukuze akhunjulwe ngokulwela kwakhe amaNgisi eSandlwana, uZimema wajikijelwa eMzimkhulu nedlanzana labalandeli bakhe.

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